Pronation is described as the inward tilt of the heel and lowering of the arch of the foot. Foot Pronation is in fact a complicated topic which forms the centre of many great debates around the world.
Other terms used to describe pronated feet are; flat feet, low arches, flat arches, rearfoot valgus and pes planus.
Pronation is a movement of the foot which takes place when we walk, the foot should pronate after the heel contact the ground and foot strike. The mid-stance phase of gait is the point of the gait.
Foot Pronation should not be thought of as ‘bad’, however the over pronated or under pronated foot will have a negative effect on the muscle pattern around the entire body. The over pronated is very common and the majority of patient’s that attend The Foot and Leg Clinic biomechanical assessments have a foot type which falls into this category.
The over pronated foot will bring about a change in the pattern of muscle activity surrounding the ankle and foot. Therefore, some muscles may lengthen whilst others may atrophy due to lack of use. The muscles surrounding the ankle are connected to muscles that surround the knee, therefore the pattern of knee muscle activity is affected in a similar way. The knee muscle changes are connected to the hip muscles… and the cycle continues!
There are a vast number of conditions associated with excess foot pronation, including: